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Aswathy

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DOCTRINE OF SEVERABILITY
Article 13 of the Constitution of India provides for Doctrine of severability which states that-
All laws in force in India before the commencement of Constitution shall be void in so far they are inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

  • The State shall not make any law which takes away/ shortens the rights conferred in Part III of the Constitution. (ie. Fundamental Rights)
  • Any law made in contravention of the provisions of the Constitution shall be void and invalid.
  • The invalid part shall be severed and declared invalid if it is really severable. (That is, if the part which is not severed can meaningfully exist without the severed part.)
  • Sometimes the valid and invalid parts of the Act are so mixed up that they cannot be separated from each other. In such cases, the entire Act will be invalid.

DOCTRINE OF ECLIPSE

  • All laws in force in India before the commencement of the Constitution shall be void in so far they are inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

  • Any law existing before the commencement of the Constitution and inconsistent with the provision of Constitution becomes inoperative on commencement of Constitution.

  • But the law does not become dead.

list][*]It is overshadowed by Fundamental Rights.[/list]
  • The law remains a valid law in order to determine any question of law incurred before commencement of the Constitution.

  • An existing law only becomes eclipsed to the extend it comes under the shadow of the FR.


DOCTRINE OF WAIVER

  • Waiver means a document that records the waiving of a legal right.
  • Article 14 provides that the FR cannot be waived by any person.
  • The Supreme Court shall see that the FR are enforced evenif one might have waived it.
  • In the case of Basheshar Nath Vs CIT, it was held that the FR cannot be waived.

j.padiya

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wow thank u for sharing

keep posting

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